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You are here: FRIAS Fellows Fellows 2020/21 Dr. Ariane Macalinga Borlongan

Dr. Ariane Macalinga Borlongan

Tokyo University of Foreign Studies
English linguistics, Historical linguistics, Sociolinguistics
External Junior Fellow
February - April 2020

Room 02 019
Phone +49 (0) 761-203 97399
Fax +49 (0) 761-203 97451


Ariane Macalinga Borlongan earned his Ph.D. in Applied Linguistics at age 23 via a competitive accelerated program in De La Salle University (Manila, the Philippines). His dissertation entitled A Grammar of the Verb in Philippine English was supervised by Professor Emerita Ma. Lourdes Bautista and was recognized as Most Outstanding Dissertation by De La Salle University. At present, he is Lecturer in Sociolinguistics at the Tokyo University of Foreign Studies (Japan). He was previously with De La Salle University, Tamagawa University (Tokyo, Japan), and The University of Tokyo (Japan) and also held visiting posts at the National University (Manila, the Philippines), the SEAMEO Regional Language Centre (Singapore), and The University of Malaya (Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia). He edited ‘Philippine English: Development, Structure, and Sociology of English in the Philippines’, published by Routledge in 2019 and serves as the handbook of Philippine English and a festscrhift in honor of Prof. Bautista. He is Director of the Philippine component of the International Corpus of English (ICE-PH) and is also the compiler of the Philippine parallels to the Brown and the Before-Brown corpora (Phil-Brown and PBB respectively) and co-compiler to the Malaysian parallel to the Brown Corpus (Mal-Brown). He is Fellow of the Royal Society for the Arts (RSA). His teaching and research have focused on sociolinguistics, world Englishes, English linguistics, and historical linguistics.

Selected Publications

  • Borlongan, Ariane Macalinga. 2011b. Some Aspects of the Morphosyntax of Philippine English. Studies on Philippine English: Exploring the Philippine Component of the International Corpus of English, ed. by Ma. Lourdes S. Bautista, 187-199. Manila, the Philippines: Anvil Publishing, Inc. for De La Salle University.
  • Borlongan, Ariane Macalinga. 2016. Relocating Philippine English in Schneider’s Dynamic Model. Asian Englishes 18(3), 1-10.
  • Borlongan, Ariane Macalinga (Editor). 2019. Philippine English: Development, Structure, and Sociology of English in the Philippines. Routledge-Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics Studies on World Englishes. Routledge.
  • Collins, Peter, Ariane Macalinga Borlongan, & Xinyue Yao. 2014. Modality in Philippine English: A Diachronic Study. Journal of English Linguistics (Special issue titled Diachronic Approaches to Modality in World Englishes) 42(1), 68-88.
  • Peter Collins, Ariane Macalinga Borlongan, JooHyuk Lim, & Xinyue Yao. 2014. The Subjunctive Mood in Philippine English: A Diachronic Analysis. Contact, Variation, and Change in the History of English, ed. by Simone E. Pfenninger, Olga Timofeeva, Anne-Christine. Gardner, Alpo Honkapohja, Marianne Hundt, & Daniel Schreier, 259-280. Amsterdam, the Netherlands: John Benjamins Publishing Co.

FRIAS Research Project

Proportions of American Variants in Philippine English across Time

English has been changing. And ongoing changes in the last century have been the object of vigorous investigations (i.e. Leech, Hundt, Mair, & Smith, 2009, also Collins, 2015; Noël, van Rooy, & van der Auwera, 2014). In investigating these changes, several determinants have been found to effect the changes observed, but mainly grammaticalization, colloquialization, densification, and Americanization (Leech et al., 2009). Americanization is induced by contact with another English, in this case, the now very influential American English, and is a pattern which Leech et al. call ‘follow-my-leader’, “the pattern where one variety, moving in the same direction as the other, takes the lead, which the other follows” (p. 253). Analysis of American and British dataset has time and again suggested that American English is influencing British English. It is expected that American English is likewise influencing change in other Englishes, but a very interesting question to ask is: How is American English influencing change in Philippine English? Indeed, the new English is an American-lineage English; hence, the default variants have been purportedly American choices (Borlongan, 2019). Yet it has also been claimed that Philippine English is moving towards linguistic independence (Collins & Borlongan, 2017). This makes an analysis of ongoing Americanization in Philippine English more interesting and worthwhile, and so this study looks into the proportions of American variants in Philippine English from the 1930s to the 2000s. Also, since diachronic and synchronic data are available for other Englishes ((i.e. Australia, British, Canada, India, Ireland, Japan, New Zealand, South Korea, the United States, and Vietnam), comparisons will also be made with them.