Prof. Dr. Eve Vivienne Clark
Okt. - Dez. 2012
- Okt. - Dez. 2012
Eve Vivienne Clark, PhD Edinburgh 1969, is the Richard W. Lyman Professor in Humanities and Professor of Linguistics at Stanford University. A member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Sciences, she is a former Fellow of the Center for Advanced Study in the Behavioral Sciences (Stanford) and a Guggenheim Fellow, as well as a Fellow of the Association for Psychological Science and of the American Association for the Advancement of Science; she is currently President of the International Association for the Study of Child Language. Her research has focussed on how children acquire the meanings of words from the earliest stages of language acquisition; how they master details of word formation in different languages – and the role of such factors as simplicity, transparency, and productivity in their novel coinages; and the kinds of information adults offer, verbally and nonverbally, about the meanings of new words. She also works on the pragmatics of language use in adults and children.
Monographien und Herausgeberschaften
- Clark, E. V. 1993. The Lexicon in Acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Clark, E. V. 2009. First Language Acquisition (2nd edn). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Clark, E. V., & Kelly, B. F. (Eds.), 2006. Constructions in Acquisition. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information.
- Arnon, I., & Clark, E. V. (Eds.), 2011. Experience, Variation, and Generalization: Learning a first language. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
- Clark, E. V. (1997) Conceptual perspective and lexical choice in acquisition. Cognition, 64, 1-37.
- Clark, E. V. (2001) Emergent categories in first language acquisition. In M. Bowerman & S. C. Levinson (Eds.), Language Acquisition and Conceptual Development (379-405). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
- Clark, E. V., & Wong, A. D-W. (2002) Pragmatic directions about language use: words and word meanings. Language in Society, 31, 181-212.
- Chouinard, M. M., & Clark, E. V. (2003) Adult reformulations of child errors as negative evidence. Journal of Child Language, 30, 637-669.
- Clark, E. V. (2005) Semantic categories in acquisition. In H. Cohen & C. Lefebvre (eds.), Handbook of Categorization in Cognitive Science (459-479). London: Elsevier.
- Clark, E. V., & Bernicot, J. (2008) Repetition as ratification: How parents and children place information in common ground. Journal of Child Language, 35, 349-371.
- Clark, E. V. (2010). Adult offer, word-class, and child uptake in early lexical acquisition. First Language, 30, 250-269.
- Arnon, I., & Clark, E. V. (2011). Why ‘on your feet’ is better than ‘feet’: Children’s word production is facilitated in familiar sentence-frames. Language Learning & Development, 7, 107-129.
- Clark, E. V., & Estigarribia, B. (2011). Using speech and gesture to inform young children about unfamiliar word meanings. Gesture, 11, 1-23.
- Clark, E. V., & de Marneffe, M. C. (2012) Constructing verb paradigms in French: Adult construals and emerging grammatical contrasts. Morphology, 22, 89-120.
Language as expertise
Children acquire the phonology, some 12000 to 14000 words, and many of the basic structures of their first language by age 6. What do they need to do to reach this point in acquisition by the time they enter school? How much exposure to the language do they need? How much interaction in using (and so practising) whatever they know so far? And do they receive corrections of the errors they make? Chomskian wisdom would argue for ‘poverty of the stimulus’ on the one hand and ‘no negative evidence’ on the other. But I will argue that, for children to reach that point by age 6 say, they require extensive exposure that ‘displays’ the conventional forms of the language and how to use them; feedback when they produce errors (they receive extensive feedback in adult reformulations of what they appeared to mean), and extensive practice in using language. These dimensions of learning mirror patterns of learning in other domains regarded as requiring expertise. I plan to explore these parallels between language and such domains as music (e.g., Suzuki training with children), chess, and athletic skills.